Prambanan history - the history of this time about the history of Prambanan, previously we have seen another history including history of birth of Pancasila and the history of Indonesian Independence. Here is a complete explanation of the history of Prambanan
History PrambananCandi Prambanan or Loro Jonggrang is the largest Hindu temple complex in Indonesia, which was built in the 9th century BC. This temple is dedicated to Trimurti, the three main Hindu gods Brahma as the creator god, Vishnu as the preserver god, and Shiva as a god of destruction. Based on the inscriptions Siwagrha original name of this temple complex is Siwagrha (Sanskrit which means 'house of Shiva'), and indeed in garbagriha (main hall) of the temple sits a statue of Shiva Mahadeva three meters high which shows that in this temple of Lord Shiva are preferred.
The temple complex is located in the district of Prambanan, Sleman and sub Prambanan, Klaten, approximately 17 kilometers northeast of Yogyakarta, 50 kilometers southwest of Surakarta and 120 kilometers south of Semarang, exactly on the border between the provinces of Central Java and Yogyakarta. It is very unique, Prambanan temple is located in the administrative area Bokoharjo village, Prambanan, Sleman, while the entrance to the Prambanan temple complex located in the village administration Tlogo, Prambanan, Klaten.
This temple is including the UNESCO World Heritage Site, the largest Hindu temple in Indonesia, and one of the most beautiful temples in Southeast Asia. The architecture of the building is tall and slender shape in accordance with Hindu architecture in general with the Shiva temple as the main temple has a height reached 47 meters towering in the middle of the complex cluster of temples are smaller. As one of the grandest temples in Southeast Asia, Prambanan temple is the main attraction of tourists visiting from all over the world.
According to the inscription Siwagrha, this temple was built in about 850 BC by Rakai Pikatan, and continue to be developed and expanded by Balitung Maha Sambu, during Medang Mataram kingdom.
Prambanan temple Development History
Prambanan is the largest Hindu temple and grandest ever built in the ancient Javanese kingdom Hindu temple construction was started by Rakai Pikatan as a rival Buddhist temple of Borobudur and Sewu temple which is located not far from Prambanan. Some historians have long suspected that the construction of grand Hindu temple to mark the return to power Sanjaya family on Java, it is related to the theory of the twin house of different beliefs competing; namely the Sanjaya dynasty of Hindu and Buddhist Sailendra dynasty. Surely, with the construction of this temple indicate that Hinduism Saiwa back the support of the royal family, after the Sailendra dynasty tend to be more supportive Mahayana Buddhist. It is marked that the kingdom Medang switch focus their religious support, from Mahayana Buddhism to the cult of Shiva.
The building was first built around 850 AD by Rakai Pikatan and continuously refined and expanded by King Lokapala and king Balitung Maha Sambu. Based on the inscriptions Siwagrha to the year 856 AD, the sacred building was built to honor the god Shiva, and the original name of the building is in Sanskrit is Siwagrha (Sanskrit: Shiva-grha which means: 'The house of Shiva') or Siwalaya (Sanskrit: Shiva-laya that means: 'Realm of Shiva' or 'Natural Shiva'). In this inscription mentioned that during the construction of the temple Siwagrha ongoing, carried out public works also changes in the water system to move the streams near this temple. River in question is the Peel river that flows from north to south along the west side of the temple complex of Prambanan. Historians suspect that the original flow of the river curving turn towards the east, and is considered too close to the temple so that erosion of the river could endanger the construction of the temple. This water system project done by creating a new river that cuts spatula curved river with the north-south axis along the west wall outside the temple complex. Former river channel original and then backfilled to provide broader land for the construction of a row of ancillary temple (temple or temple guards escort).
Some archaeologists believe that the Shiva statue in Garbhagriha (main hall) in the Shiva temple as the main temple is a statue of the king Balitung embodiment, as the statue of his posthumous pedharmaan.
This building complex periodically continue to be refined by the kings of Mataram Medang the next, like a king Daksha and Tulodong, and expanded by constructing additional hundreds of temples around the main temple. Because of the grandeur of this temple, Prambanan temple serves as a grand temple Mataram Kingdom, where important ceremonies convening various kingdoms. At the height of its glory, historians suspect that hundreds of pastors brahmin and his students gathered and inhabit the outer court of the temple to study the Vedas and implement various Hindu rituals and ceremonies. While the center of the Mataram kingdom palace royal or supposedly located somewhere near Prambanan in Kewu Plain.
Abandoned Prambanan Canri history
Around the year 930-an, the capital of the kingdom moved to East Java by MPU SINDOK, who founded isyana dynasty. Causes move the center of power is not known for certain. But very likely caused by the great eruption of Mount Merapi, which rises about 20 kilometers north of the temple of Prambanan. Other possible causes are wars and power struggles. After the transfer of the capital, Prambanan temple began neglected and unkempt, so this temple slowly begin to deteriorate and crumble.
The temple building totally collapsed allegedly due to severe earthquakes in the 16th century. Although no longer the center of religious and worship of Hindus, the temple is still recognizable and unknown by the people who inhabit villages around Java. Temples and statues of Durga in the main building of this temple Javanese folk tales that inspired the legend of Rara Jonggrang. After the split of the Sultanate of Mataram in 1755, the ruins of the temple and the nearby river Opaque be a sign of a barrier between the Sultanate of Yogyakarta and Surakarta (Solo).
History Rediscovery Prambanan
Local residents Java citizens around the temple was aware of this temple. But they do not know the real historical background, who is the king and the royal what has built this monument. As a result of imagination, local people creating local fairy tale to explain the origin of the existence of these temples; colored with a fantastic story about the demon king, thousands of temples built by spirits and dedemit genie in just one night, as well as the beautiful princess who was cursed into a statue. The legend of Prambanan temple is known as Rara Jonggrang story.
In 1733, the temple was discovered by CA. Lons a Dutch nationality. This temple attracted worldwide attention when during the British occupation of Java. When Colin Mackenzie, a subordinate surveyor Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, find this temple. Although Sir Thomas then ordered a further investigation, the ruins of this temple remained abandoned until decades. No serious excavations conducted during the 1880s that unfortunately even fertilize the practice of looting carving and stone temples. Then in 1855 Jan Willem IJzerman started to clean up and move some of the rocks and soil of the temple. Moments later Isaac Groneman massive demolition and the temple stones were piled haphazardly along the Peel River. Statues and reliefs were taken by Dutch nationals and used as garden ornaments, while the natives use stone temples for building materials and house foundation.
Restoration history Prambanan Temple
The restoration began in 1918, but a serious effort begins in earnest in the 1930s. In 1902-1903, Theodoor van Erp keep parts that are prone to collapse. In the years 1918-1926, followed by the Bureau of Antiquities (Oudheidkundige Dienst) under PJ Perquin in a more systematic manner according to the rules of archeology. As known predecessors perform removal and demolition of thousands of stones indiscriminately without thinking about the restoration effort back. In 1926 De Haan continued until his death in 1930. In 1931 was replaced by Ir. V.R. van Romondt up in 1942 and later handed over the leadership of the renovation was the son of Indonesia and it continued until 1993.
Renovation efforts continue to be done even now. The restoration of the Shiva temple that is the main temple complex was completed in 1953 and inaugurated by the first President of the Republic of Indonesia Sukarno. Many parts of the temple was renovated, using new stone, because many original stones are stolen or reused elsewhere. A temple will be renovated only when at least 75% original stone is still there. Therefore, many small temples are not rebuilt and just looks foundation course.
Now, the temple was included in the World Heritage Site protected by UNESCO, awarded UNESCO status in 1991. Today, some parts of the Prambanan temple being renovated to repair damage caused by the Yogyakarta earthquake of 2006. This earthquake has damaged a number of buildings and sculptures.
Event history Contemporary Prambanan
In the early 1990s the government moved the markets and villages spread wildly around the temple, displacing villages and rice fields in the area around the temple, and restore it into a park immemorial. The archaeological park covers a large area on the edge of Yogyakarta-Solo highway on the south side, covering the entire temple complex of Prambanan, including Candi Lumbung, Bubrah temple and Sewu in the north. In 1992 the Government of Indonesia state-owned company, Limited PT Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur, Prambanan and Ratu Boko. This business entity in charge of managing archaeological tourist park in Borobudur, Prambanan, Ratu Boko, as well as the surrounding region. Prambanan is a famous tourist attraction in Indonesia visited by many tourists in domestic or foreign tourists.
Just across the river Peel complex built Trimurti stage and theater performances are regularly held Ramayana. Open stage right Trimurti located opposite the temple on the west bank of the river with a background Peel highlighted Prambanan light. Open stage is only used during the dry season, while in the rainy season, the show moved on a closed stage. Puppet Javanese dance Ramayana people are valuable tradition of Javanese court which has hundreds of years old, usually performed in the palace and began to be shown in Prambanan during the full moon since the 1960s. Since then Prambanan has become a tourist attraction and ancient culture in Indonesia.
After a massive restoration in the 1990s, Prambanan is also back at the center of Hindu worship in Java. The revival of religious values Prambanan is because there is quite a lot people Hindus, both immigrants from Bali or Java citizens returning Hindu living in Yogyakarta, Klaten and surrounding areas. Every year Hindus from Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces gathered at Prambanan temple to hold the ceremony on the holy day of Galungan, Tawur Kesanga, and Nyepi.
On May 27, 2006 an earthquake of 5.9 on the Richter scale (while the United States Geological Survey reported a magnitude of 6.2 on the Richter scale) hit Bantul and surrounding areas. The earthquake caused severe damage to many buildings and mortality in the population around. This earthquake centered on Peel tectonic faults are faults in the direction of Peel river valley near Prambanan. One of the buildings are badly damaged Prambanan temple complex, especially the Brahma temple.
Early photographs show that despite the complex of buildings remain intact, the damage is significant. Larger rock fragments, including panel-carved panels and waterless Vajra fallen and scattered on the ground. These temples were closed from tourist visits to the damage and the danger of collapse can be taken into account. Yogyakarta archeology hall states that it can take many months to determine the extent of the damage caused by this earthquake. A few weeks later, in 2006 the site re-opened for tourist visits.
In 2008, there were a number of Indonesian tourists 856 029 and 114 951 foreign tourists visited Prambanan. On January 6, 2009 Nandi temple restoration is complete. In 2009, the space inside the main temple is closed from the tourist traffic for security reasons.